The approximate age of each faculty member was calculated by taking the year of doctoral degree listed in the Directory and adding 32 years—the median age at degree found among senior faculty in a survey of 2,240 associate and full professors listed in the 2012 Directory. The report is based on jobs posted to the AHA Career Center and the separate H-Net Job Guide. Historically, most students earning PhDs in art history have planned to become university professors. Yet the relative stability in job numbers in 2018-19 signals that the history job market is normalizing after years of steep declines prior to 2017-18. (Courtesy: University of Akron), University of Cincinnati-Blue Ash College, University of Cincinnati-Clermont College, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, University of Colorado BioFrontiers Institute, University of Colorado Denver/Anschutz Medical Campus, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of Maryland University College, University of Massachusetts Medical School, University of North Carolina at Asheville, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, University of North Carolina at Wilmington, University of North Carolina School of the Arts, University of Pittsburgh-Pittsburgh Campus. Still, 13 percent of tenure-track openings for assistant professors went to applicants six or more years beyond their Ph.D.s. About 25 percent of historians work outside academe, so the report does not reflect the entire jobs outlook, but it is considered representative of overall disciplinary trends. Here are a few more observations from Friday’s report: Earnings rise: Average earnings rose 7 cents an hour in April, to $26.19. This license applies only to the article, not to text or images used here by permission. Javier Brugues. High school teachers teach academic lessons and various skills that students will need to attend college and to enter the job market. While there are other outlets for job advertisements in the discipline (H-Net, institutional websites, and local jobs websites for many short-term contract positions), recent research indicates that “societies’ job listings data are useful measures of the demand for new PhD recipients.” Ronald G. Ehrenberg, “The Usefulness of Societies’ Job Listings Data,” Academy Data Forum, The number of advertised full-time faculty jobs in history declined slightly last year, after increasing slightly the year before. He had a PhD from a top history program, and his dissertation advisers were famous intellectuals, but he knew that the job market was tight. With consistent job gains this far into the longest economic recovery in U.S. history, the October employment data make it clear that the American labor market remains strong. Employment & Careers This movement of population is in essence a labor market phenomenon. Employing History (EH): A Guide to Graduate School and Navigating the Job Market is a handbook for graduate students and early career historians. Labor Force Participation Rate in the United States averaged 62.87 percent from 1948 until 2020, reaching an all time high of 67.30 percent in January of 2000 and a record low of 58.10 percent in December of 1954. The European Center for Advanced Research in Economics and Statistics (ECARES) of the Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB) invites applications for a post-doctoral position in the field of fields of economic history, family/demographic economics, and/or development economics.. 5. One of the primary drivers of change identified is the role of emerging technologies, such as artificial intelligence (AI) and automation. Faculty listings for 556 US history departments from the past 15 years provide a partial answer to these questions. Prof. Jakub Steiner. T he academic job market in history remains quite challenging for recent PhDs, and evidence from the AHA’s Directory of History Departments, Historical Organizations, and Historians (the Directory) indicates that these challenges are likely to persist. Susan White, Raymond Chu, and Roman Czujko, The 2012–13 Survey of Humanities Departments at Four-Year Institutions (College Park, MD: Statistical Research Center, American Institute of Physics, 2014). Questions have persisted about the effects of the Great Recession and whether full-time faculty lines in history are being eliminated or replaced with part-time and adjunct appointments. But as of 2015, that wave has largely passed, and lingers as a significant increase only in the share of full-time faculty over the age of 70 (which has risen from 7 percent in 1995 to 17 percent in 2015).10 An unusually small percentage of full-time faculty are now approaching retirement. The wave of faculty members approaching retirement was evident in the age distribution in the 1995 Directory; almost 40 percent of faculty members were roughly between the ages of 54 and 65 (fig. Job opening. Available November 2020 for positions in Summer/Fall 2021. Be the first to know.Get our free daily newsletter. Labour Force Survey. (For comparison, while 10 percent of the listed faculty in the Directory were employed in part-time or adjunct positions, a recent survey of faculty at four-year institutions found approximately 28 percent of faculty members employed in those positions. Job Prospects. Robert B. Townsend and Julia Brookins | Richard Audoly. The AHA’s report warns that overall college and university enrollment is projected to decline further in the years ahead. Labour markets or job markets function through the interaction of workers and employers. Share your thoughts », Boulder arts and sciences dean wants to build back the faculty post-pandemic -- one non-tenure-track, Long-term online learning in pandemic may impact students' well-being, Students in great need of mental health support during pandemic, Live Updates: Latest News on Coronavirus and Higher Education, How to write an effective diversity statement (essay), Review of Jeffrey R. 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Know the critical skills you will need to be employable and find a good job in the future. Browse all jobs on Inside Higher Ed Careers », We are retiring comments and introducing Letters to the Editor. The number of faculty job openings listed with the American Historical Association in the 2011-12 academic year was up 18 percent. Original article "Future Job Market" by the authors of Summary Job market research shows growth in some industries and sectors and decline in others.. Where will the jobs of tomorrow be? Resources for Early Career The US job market had its worst month in history, but Apple and Amazon are still hiring The coronavirus put at least 33 million people out of work and pushed unemployment to … Attribution must provide author name, article title, Perspectives on History, date of publication, and a link to this page. Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour.Labour is a commodity that is supplied by labourers in exchange for a wage paid by demanding firms. ... Development, Economic History, Political Economy: Job market paper : Do Disasters Affect Adherence to Social Norms? Historians may face very strong competition for most jobs. 2. Finance Job Rumors (309,297) General Economics Job Market Discussion (625,689) Micro Job Rumors (13,347) Macro Job Rumors (8,394) European Job Market (79,696) China Job Market (53,443) Industry Rumors (20,989) T he recent drop in the share of faculty at the assistant professor level points to a larger shift in demographics, which suggests deeper challenges for new PhDs looking to enter academia in the near future. Current Job Market Candidates. Together, Ruediger wrote, “the two leading job boards indicate a modest 2.9 percent decline in tenure-track positions and a 5 percent decline in contingent faculty positions compared to 2017-18.”, Like the humanities generally, “history has seen decreased enrollments and a decline in the number of majors since the recession of 2008-09,” the report also says. Whether this trend reflects a move to share labor costs among college and university departments that otherwise could not afford to hire, or a growth in interdisciplinarity, remains a subject for further exploration. 1. The median age of all new history PhDs reported in the Survey of Earned Doctorates has been two to three years higher than this for the past three decades, but the findings in the survey suggest that scholars who are younger when they complete the PhD are more likely to find their way into tenure-track positions. Harpswell Foundation students. )8 The number of faculty listed in part-time and adjunct positions shrank from 2010 to 2015—falling from 1,596 to 1,397 of the listed faculty (close to the 1,394 listed in the 2000 Directory). From the late 1990s to 2008, job advertisements listed with the AHA reached unprecedented heights as a result of a significant wave of retirements. In comparison, 37 percent of full-time faculty were at the rank of associate professor (up 8 percentage points from 2000), with 39 percent at the rank of full professor (also the lowest level since 2000). Photo courtesy of New College of the Humanities/Simon Jones. Contingent positions -- instructors, lecturers, clinical professors and visiting appointments -- made up 28 percent of full-time faculty positions advertised last year, unchanged from 2017-18. Another 9.0 percent of advertisers searched for an Asian history specialist (slightly higher than the 6.6 percent share of new PhDs), and around 5 percent each for specialists in the history of Latin America and the Middle East or North Africa (slightly below the 6.6 and 6.2 percent shares, respectively, among new PhDs). Job vacancy in Hong Kong 香港職位空缺 - JobMarket求職廣場 - 讀者人數最多|廣告最強|No.1招聘雜誌 Your one-stop site for job vacancy, employment, career tips and latest news for the working forces. “This long-term trend might have finally bottomed out, thanks to the creativity and determination of faculty who are reinvigorating history courses, and departments willing to put student interests and outcomes at the center of their curricula.”, Meanwhile, “departments have responded to years of difficult academic hiring cycles by shrinking the size of their doctoral programs.”, Ruediger’s analysis says that history Ph.D.s who graduated in the past decade faced fewer opportunities and more competition “than any cohort of PhDs since the 1970s when departments significantly cut admissions to their doctoral programs.”, As some historians are calling for similar steps to be taken now, he said, some departments have “quietly been shrinking for some time, a trend that continued last year.”, In 2018, for example, 1,003 students earned history Ph.D.s, compared to 1,058 in 2017. Phone: 202.544.2422Email:, The Troubled Academic Job Market for History, perspectives-on-history/september-2014/the-academic-job-markets-jagged-line,,,,, december-2012/what-makes-a-successful-academic-career-in-history, putting-retirement, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. Racial discrimination continues to be pervasive in cultures throughout the world. Founding Director Alan Lightman is pictured on the center right. Job Market Candidates Information about our 2020/2021 Job Market Candidates. This marked the third annual decline and a 45 percent reduction from the pre­recession peak of 1,064 advertisements in the 2011–12 academic year.4 Notably, for the first time in 41 years, the number of jobs advertised with the AHA fell below half the number of PhDs conferred in the previous year. It contains experiential advice and guidance on navigating post-graduate study, sharing academic research and finding work. At the same time, fewer Ph.D.s in history are being awarded. Work Environment. History jobs report indicates that the market may be stabilizing and could do so further as the number of new Ph.D.s continues to decline. Digital history was the predominant professional skill sought by advertisers (serving as the primary criteria for 2.6 percent of the openings, and mentioned as a beneficial skill in an additional 5.5 percent of the listings). But the trend here is notable, with the number rising from 654 in 2000 to 802 in 2010, and reaching 862 in the current Directory. What can a History graduate do? See Table HDS-H2 at The data reported here represent academic positions that have been advertised with the AHA; this is a subset within the broad range of jobs that historians pursue and perform. Resources for History Departments. The Ecology of the History Job: Shifting Realities in a Fluid Market (December 2011) Job Market Sagged Further in 2009–10 (January 2011) A Grim Year on the Academic Job Market for Historians (January 2010) Figure: Trends in History PhDs Awarded and Job Openings Advertised, 1970-71 … Joseph Henrich. The median age for new history PhDs has been consistently between 34.5 and 35.5 years, according to annual issues of the summary report Doctorate Recipients from US Universities, available at The new data appeared in the American Historical Association’s annual jobs report, released Wednesday. But the decline for 2017-18 was “significantly smaller than it was in 2016-17, when both editions, English and languages other than English, suffered a drop of 11.5 percent.” In 2017-18, meanwhile, “the number of English positions dropped from 837 to 828 (a 1.1 percent decline), and the number of positions in languages dropped from 808 to 770 (a 4.7 percent decline).”. In 2015, 24 percent of full-time faculty members were at the rank of assistant professor—a drop of 4 percentage points from 2010 and the lowest level in the 15 years surveyed. Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey, Missouri University of Science and Technology, North Dakota State University-Main Campus, North Orange County Community College District, Northern Virginia School of Therapeutic Massage, Northern Wyoming Community College District, Ohio State University Agricultural Technical Institute, Oklahoma State University - Center for Health Sciences, Patient simulation at Springfield Technical Community College, Pennsylvania State University-Main Campus, Pennsylvania State University-Penn State Abington, Pennsylvania State University-Penn State Harrisburg, Rancho Santiago Community College District, Saint Francis Medical Center College of Nursing, San Joaquin Delta Community College District, San Jose/Evergreen Community College District, San Mateo County Community College District, source: uses: Student, source: uses: faculty retirement, source: uses: open education resources, source: uses: ethics, source: uses: adult education, source: uses: Finance, source: Lauren Rouppas uses: affordable care act, source: Wikipedia/Janto Dreijer uses: tablet, source: Wikipedia/Ludovic Bertron caption: gay students, source: wikipedia/strngwrldfrwl uses: remedial education, uses: S.T.E.M. 2). 3).9. Among the signs of difficulty for academic-job candidates today and into the near future: (1) the number of positions advertised with the AHA over the past year fell for the third year in a row, (2) the number of tenured and tenure-track faculty lines fell slightly over the past five years, and (3) evidence indicates that a relatively small share of full-time faculty will be approaching retirement within the next decade.1. Most do not teach during the summer. 9. “We may have reached a point of stability in the academic job market,” reads the report, written by Dylan Ruediger, an AHA staffer. The annual Survey of Earned Doctorates ( provides the best measure of new history PhDs potentially entering the job market, since it allows new doctoral degree recipients to self-define the discipline of their degree and captures students who are earning degrees outside core history departments. Nathan Nunn. 10. An in-depth study conducted by the AHA in 2013 found that 24 percent of those who had earned a history doctorate 3 to 15 years earlier held positions beyond the professoriate.2 The AHA’s ongoing Career Diversity for Historians project highlights the extensive scope of such opportunities and provides professional development resources for both history doctoral students and graduate programs.3 Finally, many positions in postsecondary history teaching—at two-year colleges, for example—are advertised primarily through institutional and local job boards, and are not part of the data set in this analysis. Please read our commenting and letters policy before submitting. As of 2015, 22 percent were ages 54 to 64—the lowest recorded level in that cohort since the 1980 Directory, when the end of a wave of hiring in the 1960s and early 1970s meant that just 19 percent of the faculty were approaching retirement (and only 2 percent of the faculty were over the age of 70). On H-Net, the number of history job ads dropped by about 9 percent. Faculty listed in joint appointments are not included in the faculty counts above, since the nature of the appointments and the division of responsibilities between departments could not be determined. References : Ernst Fehr. R ecent trends in the AHA’s Directory underscore some of the larger currents in the profession that are responsible for the depressed rates of new job openings. These numbers stand unchanged from last year and are at odds with the overall composition of history faculty, “most of whom are employed at teaching institutions,” the report says. At the same time, fewer Ph.D.s in history are being awarded. The American Historical Association welcomes comments in the discussion area below, at AHA Communities, and in letters to the editor. Among the full-time faculty members listed in the departments, there was also a notable shift in balance between the ranks (fig. On the contrary, the labor market improvements of the past eight years have set off a chain of events that should lead to an even stronger job market in 2019. Tabulations for the years 1973 to 2013 were drawn using the National Science Foundation’s WebCASPAR system at 8. 1). The career choices available to History graduates are broad. “The concentration of tenure-track positions at research universities, should it continue, clearly pertains to Ph.D. candidates entering the academic job market.”, Over all, Ruediger wrote, “We are now entering our second decade of anemic academic hiring, during which thousands of early-career historians have experienced disappointment, anger, and despair at the limited number of entry points into stable faculty employment.” This should “prompt us to recognize the accomplishments of historians building careers and contributing to our community from outside the professoriate: we will need their help to demonstrate the value of historical thinking beyond the academy.”, Even so, he said, “majors and undergraduate enrollments remain the foundation of the discipline within higher education, and improving the faculty market means strengthening that foundation.”, In good news, there are signs that years of declines in enrollments and majors may be leveling off and even beginning to “rebound,” Ruediger said. 6. J ob openings posted through the AHA provide the most visible evidence of the challenges facing historians seeking academic employment. The labor force participation rate in the United States increased by 0.3 percentage point to 61.7 percent in October 2020, remaining 1.7 percentage points below the February level. Ruben Poblete Cazenave. Prof. Armin Schmutzler. Authors. The Directory currently contains entries from 640 college and university history departments. 4. Job Markets Researchers examined the level of racial discrimination in the United States labor market by randomly assigning identical résumés black-sounding or white-sounding names and observing the impact on requests for interviews from employers. The class of 2020 is unsure and anxious about their professional prospects as they graduate college into a labor market ravaged by the coronavirus pandemic. The proficiencies gained during a History degree are applicable across a wide range of sectors, including Finance, Management, Retail and more, which means it is up to graduates to decide which kind of career they want to pursue.. SIGN UP FOR NEWSLETTERS. Making a Bad Job Market Worse. And as the job market has improved more broadly, it seems the awful unemployment rates young grads experienced post-recession really are finally fading into memory. Look at the survey data to assess the state of the Canadian labour market. Maclean’s; Allen Abel; Brian Bethune; Claire Brownell; Prajakta Dhopade Because of the popularity of history degree programs, applicants are expected to outnumber positions available. The largest of the topical specializations was the history of religion (accounting for 3.6 percent of the advertised positions). Every month, we measure employment and unemployment rates at the national, provincial, territorial and regional level. Aside from postings that specified a geographic focus, nearly a third were either open or focused primarily on a topical or professional specialty. The findings here appear to confirm a recent survey that found three-quarters of middle to late-career faculty planned to work past the age of 65. The estimate for 2013–14 is based on the growth between 2012–13 and 2013–14 in the number of reported history PhDs in the narrower Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) degree completions survey, downloaded from the IPEDS Data Center at datacenter. Robert Townsend, director of the Washington office of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, is currently completing the 2017-18 departmental survey of faculties in the humanities fields. Please read our commenting and letters policy before submitting. Free to job seekers. Julia Brookins is special projects coordinator at the AHA. The current age profile of historians in academia represents a significant challenge for doctoral students focused on academic employment and the departments preparing them, as it suggests that the ebb in open tenure-track positions is likely to linger over the next decade. As they did last year, when the AHA began tracking jobs by institution type, research universities dominated academic hiring: 56 percent of all tenure-track positions in 2018-19 were at research universities, according to the report, as were 51 percent of full-time, non-tenure-track positions and two-thirds of all senior hires.