The former Department of Education adopted the Language in Education Policy (LiEP) in 1997, and further clarified this policy in the Revised National Curriculum Statement (NCS) of 2002. Globalising Volunteering: VSO's experience, Understanding development in the Third World: How communication can enhance development, Participatory film making: How development communication experiences from Nepal are being applied to rural communities in Northern Ireland, Black and minority ethnic diaspora communities and development education, Rethinking languages of instruction in African schools. The idea about the use of indigenous languages in Africa is not new. Evode Mukama is a lecturer at the National University of Rwanda, Faculty of Education. Conflicts in schools over race, fees or language frequently make headlines in South Africa. What does it mean to learn in foreign languages and in a foreign context? Feasibility is another issue which needs to be addressed (for further development). He is a member of the Governing Board at Byumba Polytechnic Institute and also a member of the Textbook Approval Committee based at the Ministry of Education in Rwanda. The meanings assigned to this literature through examples, stories, analogies, metaphors, application, theorization, and even the style of writing are primarily embedded in their social realities. Pupils must study at least two languages. We use longitudinal data on school characteristics including language of instruction by grade, and student test score data for the population of South African primary schools. Advocates of both “straight-for-English” approaches and mother-tongue instruction envisage a carefully thought-through set of instructional practices implemented by high-quality teachers and supported by sufficient materials. South African legislation and education policy does not prescribe which of the 11 official languages should be used, but leaves the choice of language of instruction to School Governing Bodies, which are comprised by a parent majority as well as the school principal, several staff members and, in the case of secondary schools, pupils (South Africa, 1996). Background and current status The language ecology in South Africa is dynamic and highly complex. In this paper, the Rwandan context is an illustrative case. By learning French or English, for example, we also acquire the French or English cultures. The Incremental Introduction of African Languages (IIAL) policy aims to: (1) promote and strengthen the use of African languages by all learners in the school system by introducing learners incrementally to learning an African language from Grade 1 to 12 to ensure that all non-African home language speakers speak an African Language; This South African teachers switch languages in class: ... then only taught as subjects and are rarely used as a medium of instruction. ABSTRACTThis paper uses a change in the language of instruction in South African schools in 1955 to examine the effect of mother-tongue instead of English or Afrikaans instruction on long-term educational and economic outcomes. The variety and the use of those languages depend very much on the colonialist legacy. '_Gi? The variety and the use of those languages depend very much on the colonialist legacy. In different countries and regions Africa. IntroductionIn most African countries, languages of instruction come from overseas. This discussion explains partly how the competence of African graduates becomes sometimes “inefficient competence” due to semantically impoverished classroom situations they experience when they come back to their countries of origin. Yet, many developing countries continue to use other languages for teaching in their schools. The major obstacle was that most of the countries in Africa have many languages, except a few such as Rwanda, Burundi and Somalia, where all people speak one language throughout the country. 4, Spring, pp. 53-56. Africa (RSA, 1996a) and the South African Schools Act (SASA) (RSA, 1996b). It is important to stress here that, according to the UNESCO figures, only around 50% of Rwandan people can read and write. It is rather a reflection based on the literature, and on my own experience as a teacher. Such conflicts reflect the multifaceted issue of learner diversity, encompassing racial, class, gender, religious, linguistic, physical and other differences. When Singapore became independent in 1965, few Singaporeans spoke English. Most of the scientific books we come across in African schools have been written by Europeans and Americans in their particular contexts and in their specific languages. when using English as language of learning in higher education is a matter of great concern in the South African higher education sector. To sit the Matric exam in Grade 12, students must know both English and Afrikaans. Outside the classroom, at home, at the church, on the street, in administration and business, briefly, in students' everyday life, Kinyarwanda is almost exclusively the only language of oral communication. When we learn the language, we appropriate also the social context within which the meaning is created. Anti-racism through story telling in Belfast: Telling whose story to whom? To what extent do languages of instruction contribute to the qualitative transformation of personal and social processes? What happens to those 90% of the population who can only speak Kinyarwanda? Many children in South African public schools are still not taught in their mother tongue. Another day, I gave a short lecture in French to the same students. However, it seems that Kinyarwanda should not be left behind if the purpose of education is to bring students to understand, see the reality in different ways, and shift their mindsets in order to cope with change within and around them. In addition to Kinyarwanda, English and French are recognised by the constitution as the official languages. This language preference is clearly expressed in the recently published Human Sciences Research Council (HRSC) survey of South African social attitudes. Most South Africans prefer the use of English as the language of instruction from grade one (with … English and French are of course important in order to be able to open students' horizons, and to exchange views with the world. The Impact of Language Barriers on Academic Achievement in South Africa's Schools 1.1 Introduction and background to the study The Department of Basic Education is pulling out all the stops to ensure all 3 558 schools offer at least one African language. The social situation or the culture within which the child is educated is the foundation of meaning. ˜ÅHæôaŸ €ôaØÌљZ­¶ÿ¸p¤÷=|؁ö°cÖªywƉ\¹3v>³ÃOôþý°ÃïÅgIºB¿Çe±`pdHaó“bÿ¹¼Ÿ$5D&ˆÈ¿ö‡a~g¿kÄßàýç€ü]TßB÷o_ì‚÷ÈÞAëÃ(¹{QIËc@imù ´xÁfìcuö VA6—m=y ¬Ý°–*ù4Z[õ ZoØÂu.ïÂuú7¸ÎÕ>\K›†kÜvï…k ²ˆœ0. South Africa is a multi-lingual society that has some unique linguistic problems because of its policy of apartheid. In South Africa, the question is often posed in binary terms: Should the medium of instruction be a familiar local language such as Xhosa or a language of wider communication like English? Teachers cannot give to students the characteristics that they do not have. Same story, different tales: Looking for the whole story, Skillshare Ireland's work with PLWHA networks in Southern Africa, Scaling up the development education response to HIV. This experience brought me to reflect on the purpose of languages of instruction. It would be very ambitious, even superfluous to reduce the complexity of African languages to one single language used in one single nation. His research interests include teacher professional development, learning and teaching with information communication technology in schools, peace education, adult education and reeducation and vocational training with school drop out students. ; In Zimbabwe, use of English, Shona and Ndebele is established in education until the fourth grade; from the fourth grade, English is the medium of instruction. In some countries also, African languages are used as the language of instruction but only at the They explained that they did not understand English because they were basically French speaking though they were supposed to be bilingual according to the national policy. In recent years a number of schools have changed their policy, thus creating within-school, cross-grade variation in the language of instruction received in the early grades. Languages of instruction, if not well used, can discriminate among potential students and even create social classes among the population: those who can learn with foreign languages and those who cannot; those who have good teachers of foreign languages and those who do not. Simple OLS estimates suggest a positive correlation between English instruction in the first three grades and English performance in grades 4, 5 and 6. South Africa 4.2.1. In some countries also, African languages are used as the language of instruction but only at the elementary school level. As the number of English first-language speakers is only the fourth highest of all the language groups in South Africa, it follows that the majority of children in the country are taught in a language that is not their mother-tongue.School subjects in South Africa are either taught in English from grade 1 all the way through to matric or the first three years of education are presented in the children’s first language (any of the other ten official o… Currently, most schools in which the major-ity of pupils are not English- or Afrikaans-speaking opt to Moreover, Halliday explains that: “The context plays a part in determining what we say; and what we say plays a part in determining the context” (Halliday quoted in Wells, 1999: 8). English was the language of imperialism, of the colonizers. According to the education policy, Kinyarwanda must be a language of instruction in the lower primary school; this is the first three years of elementary level. Site developed by Avec SolutionsPrivacy Policy, 2016 Centre for Global Education9 University Street, Belfast, BT7 1FYTel: (0044)2890241879E-mail: info@centreforglobaleducation.com Facebook / Twitter. Chiwome and Tondlana (1992:248) postulate that non-English speaking students who are African mother-tongue speakers prefer to be taught in English, particularly The 1997 Language in Education Policy is aimed at redress for the ills of apartheid and equity for all South African languages. Mukama, E (2007) 'Rethinking languages of instruction in African schools', Policy and Practice: A Development Education Review, Vol. The difference in ability to master tools (such as language) and use them effectively can portray, to some extent, the difference in qualitative developmental changes. The need to handle such differences in equitable ways poses new challenges for teachers and teacher education. Using the 1980 South African census, a difference-in-difference framework allows me to estimate the effect of increasing mother-tongue instruction for … Secondly, the school environment is not conducive for practising foreign languages. The students became not only dynamic but also excited to talk and discuss critically issues under study. pan south african language board recommendations to the minister and department of education on the implementation of the language in education policy PREAMBLE The Pan South African Language Board (PANSALB) fully endorses the principles that underpin the Language in Education Policy of the Department of Education (DoE) as published by the Minister on 14 July 1997. From the secondary school level, students are supposed to be (theoretically) perfectly bilingual in English and French, but the reality on the ground is different; firstly, because teachers do not have the same characteristics of being bilingual. How effective would the outcomes of learning be when they work in a rich semantically learning space? 4.2. We try to integrate their social contexts so that we can understand what is said and why. The native language is Kinyarwanda, which is spoken all over the country by all people. The roles of local languages, Afrikaans and English in education and society are multifaceted and full of political implications. The question as to which language should be used as a medium of instruction in schools in multilingual societies is a controversial one. Languages of instruction in African schools include English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Afrikaans. It is located in Central/Eastern Africa. Languages used within schools in South Africa. On one level, there are tensions between its two official language groups, Afrikaans and English. Preparations are underway for the implementation of the Incremental Introduction of African Languages (IIAL) programme in more than 3 558 schools across all provinces that don’t offer an African language. SCHOOLS ACT Section 6 of the South African Schools Act deals with language policy in public schools, providing as follows: There are a number of ways in which schools can give protection to different languages in education, and particularly to the right of learners to choose their language of instruction. ... a stronger inclusion of African languages at schools. One day, I asked some of them to answer some questions in line with a short lecture I gave them in English. Most schools offer lessons in either English or Afrikaans; others offer classes in another South African language. Furthermore, the poor throughput rates in South African schools at the moment, where barely a quarter of African language learners who enter the schooling system are likely to reach Matric, seems to indicate that the current practice of using English as the initial language of learning and teaching is at least one contributing factor to this problem. From then on, Kinyarwanda and one of the two foreign languages become subjects to be taught. From the first year of the upper primary school, pupils are expected to choose either English or French as a language of instruction. The Incremental Introduction of African Languages (IIAL) is a priority programme aimed at facilitating social cohesion. They tried and I realised that they were struggling with English and not with the content per se. Some schools use English as the language of instruction from the first grade. But learners in the rural areas enter school with only their home language. In Kenya, the language of instruction is English, and some learners in urban and some cosmopolitan settings speak and understand some English by the time they join school. He is also a PhD student at Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Media representations of Africa: Still the same old story? Since linguistic inclusiveness is espoused in the South African Constitution and the National Development Plan, IIAL is intended to promote and develop South Africa’s previously marginalised African languages in schools. but leaves the choice of language of instruction to School Governing Bodies, which are comprised by a parent ma-jority as well as the school principal, several staff mem-bers and, in the case of secondary schools, pupils (South Africa, 1996). He has a long experience in teaching at all levels of education system (primary, secondary and higher education). Most spoke Mandarin (Chinese), Malay and Tamil. 1.2.1 The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa In Tanzania, Swahili is used in primary schools and adult education, whereas English is used in secondary schools and universities. As we discuss below, these are Foreign languages of instruction contribute to excluding students who fail to master them from the educational system. The mastering of language and the mastering of human behaviour are mutually linked. Prior to 2009, these two departments were represented in a single Department of Education. Marton et al (2004) point to an issue which deserves more attention in the African context, especially in Rwanda: “A space of learning that is semantically rich allows students to come to grips with the critical features of the object of learning much more effectively than one that is semantically impoverished” (p.32). Then they became more dynamic than they were before. This research tells us the average effect of language of instruction in South African schools as things are currently being implemented. When South Africa gained independence from European powers in 1961, its language :óW˺è‚ÄxèüPÎÖ¹Ã]ïbš$¡Ó¡¨«ò¨¹ª=çÐàçoEfb³(ÛßU‹¡íèçUà“or‡E/¿N‚€tÁâªëzàßWPe^kmi¼¼Ø¶Gқö§3ñpA £­HÞÉ0ëÏPSI%Lʈ›ç\¨-d’˜0Ȩ@:ÒÅ&xÓ*0›ˆÓɪ¶&Hÿ“Âò-p;juÆ Ý­°‰T‚€uj2¬/±Û,›r¿™ÆœT ǛÉcm6£¡™çYÈÚ³ýجµ(Ð¥•«ò/?ae8CB^Ú [¥ØÁ< (Š±*ÔÇ`eŠ9{ö How much more beneficial would it be for students to learn in the language they understand better? Maybe, the debate should be contextualised and arguments supported according to the needs of the population concerned. Language is therefore a cultural means that has been developed and refined to serve the purpose of social action and interaction. Education in South Africa is governed by two national departments, namely the department of Basic Education (DBE), which is responsible for primary and secondary schools, and the department of Higher Education and Training (DHET), which is responsible for tertiary education and vocational training. However, in some prestigious private schools, one of the foreign languages is definitely a language of instruction from even the pre-school up to the university and Kinyarwanda is not taught at all. Those students who cannot or who fail to master foreign languages also have the right to learn, especially in their native languages. Competitive Identity: A new model for the brand management of nations, cities and regions. In most African countries, languages of instruction come from overseas. By the end of the 1960s and through the 1970s, the debate attained its highest point. On another level, there are linguistic tensions between the ethnic Europeans and the black majority, mostly in regard to language instruction in schools. Thirdly and most importantly, if Kinyarwanda is spoken by the majority of Rwandan people, not more than 10% of the population can read and speak fluently English or French. The last time, I used Kinyarwanda, their mother tongue, to explain the lecture rather than English or French. Languages of instruction in African schools include English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Afrikaans. When I ask my students to discuss an article in small groups, they do it in Kinyarwanda, even though the article is written in English or French. Rwanda is small country of 26,338 square kilometres and 8 million people. In the near future children who attend government schools will be able to learn at least one African language. Language of instruction in the construal of a person. However, this paper is not a result of an empirical study. 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